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Eric L. Christensen

Attorney

Eric is one of the Pacific Northwest’s leading energy and natural resources attorneys. His practice focuses on assisting both emerging energy and clean tech companies and traditional energy companies navigate the complex legal and regulatory systems governing the nation’s energy industry. With more than 27 years of experience, Eric has successfully represented clients in complex litigation and regulatory matters, ranging from the U.S. Supreme Court to major proceedings before federal and state agencies. In addition, Eric has successfully guided clients through major transactions involving, for example, renewable and traditional energy facilities, complex energy and derivatives trades, brownfields redevelopment, engineering and construction services, early-stage and traditional financing, risk management, and government grants and tax incentives.

Eric’s litigation experience includes successfully representing Snohomish County PUD in a series of complex lawsuits arising from the Enron crisis. The Enron litigation involved action at every level of the federal courts, including the U.S. Supreme Court, as well as complex administrative litigation resulting in an order requiring Enron to disgorge more than $1 billion. In addition, Eric has litigated dozens of matters in the federal and state courts. These include, for example, federal court challenges to the landmark federal orders restructuring regulation of the electricity, natural gas, and oil pipeline industries in the U.S. and critical regulatory and Constitutional issues in the Washington courts, including several matters before the Washington Supreme Court.

In addition, Eric has played a key role in major energy and infrastructure transactions throughout Washington. These include three major wind generation projects, the only major hydroelectric dam constructed in Washington this century, a major electric transmission cable, several renewable energy projects, and the contracts governing sales of power and transmission from the Northwest’s huge federal hydroelectric and transmission systems. In addition, Eric has put together complex transactions involving financing, engineering services, construction of buildings and similar facilities, and energy and commodity trades. He has also successfully litigated claims involving liability for hazardous waste contamination and assisted developers to reclaim and redevelop brownfields sites.

Introduction

Eric is one of the Pacific Northwest’s leading energy and natural resources attorneys. His practice focuses on assisting both emerging energy and clean tech companies and traditional energy companies navigate the complex legal and regulatory systems governing the nation’s energy industry. With more than 27 years of experience, Eric has successfully represented clients in complex litigation and regulatory matters, ranging from the U.S. Supreme Court to major proceedings before federal and state agencies. In addition, Eric has successfully guided clients through major transactions involving, for example, renewable and traditional energy facilities, complex energy and derivatives trades, brownfields redevelopment, engineering and construction services, early-stage and traditional financing, risk management, and government grants and tax incentives.

Eric’s litigation experience includes successfully representing Snohomish County PUD in a series of complex lawsuits arising from the Enron crisis. The Enron litigation involved action at every level of the federal courts, including the U.S. Supreme Court, as well as complex administrative litigation resulting in an order requiring Enron to disgorge more than $1 billion. In addition, Eric has litigated dozens of matters in the federal and state courts. These include, for example, federal court challenges to the landmark federal orders restructuring regulation of the electricity, natural gas, and oil pipeline industries in the U.S. and critical regulatory and Constitutional issues in the Washington courts, including several matters before the Washington Supreme Court.

In addition, Eric has played a key role in major energy and infrastructure transactions throughout Washington. These include three major wind generation projects, the only major hydroelectric dam constructed in Washington this century, a major electric transmission cable, several renewable energy projects, and the contracts governing sales of power and transmission from the Northwest’s huge federal hydroelectric and transmission systems. In addition, Eric has put together complex transactions involving financing, engineering services, construction of buildings and similar facilities, and energy and commodity trades. He has also successfully litigated claims involving liability for hazardous waste contamination and assisted developers to reclaim and redevelop brownfields sites.

Experience & Results

Environmental Experience

  • Successfully represented developer of major Tacoma brownfield development in addressing hazardous waste contamination issues with several municipal agencies and the Washington Department of Natural Resources.
  • Successfully represented property developer to recover more than $1 million for cleanup of petroleum contamination.
  • Successfully represent property owners to protect themselves from hazardous waste claims in sales of property.
  • Defended site owner in administrative and court litigation successfully minimizing costs of cleanup of contamination from wood treating operation.
  • Successfully defended small business from claims arising from spill of oil into waters of the State of Washington.
  • Helped assure compliance with Endangered Species Act, Migratory Bird Treaty Act and other statutes protecting raptors in construction of the first major hydroelectric project constructed in Washington this decade.
  • Successful defense of licensed and ongoing hydroelectric project from claims arising under Endangered Species Act.
  • Developed and implemented National Environmental Protection Act compliance strategy for major federal rulemaking creating open access to nation’s electric transmission system.
  • Representation of major utility in licensing for experimental tidal electric generation project, including compliance with Endangered Species Act, Marine Mammal Protection Act, Coastal Zone Management Act, and state analogues.
  • Successfully represented clients in multiple administrative proceedings and court cases involving Washington State Environmental Protection Act.
  • Successfully permitted and obtained access easements for major projects on U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Bureau of Land Management, and Washington Department of Natural Resources lands.  

Major Transactions

  • Transmission Development and Contracts: Advised developer of major transmission line using advanced HVDC technology concerning Bonneville Power Administration and regional energy matters, regulatory, contract, licensing, right-of-way, permitting and political issues. Drafted and negotiated contracting involving transfer of transmission rights on one of the major interties between the Northwest and California. Drafted and negotiated contract to secure capacity on Bonneville Power Administration system through 2028. Drafted and negotiated a series of complex contracts among Puget Sound-area utilities creating coordinated strategy to address transmission curtailments.
  • Power Supply and Interconnection Contracts: Negotiation and drafting of major long-term contracts with BPA, including 17-year contract for purchase of power for BPA's largest customer under complex "Slice/Block" structure and "TRM" construct; drafting and negotiation of transmission contracts; and, drafting and negotiation of interconnection and balancing services contracts. Drafted and negotiated major long-term power supply contracts with private power marketers. Drafted and negotiated contracts for interconnection and transmission of power from proposed 500 MW natural gas generation station.
  • Wind Power Contracts: Drafted and negotiated contracts for all output from Iberdrola Renewables' 100.8 MW Hay Canyon Wind Project, all output from Horizon Wind Energy's 96.6 MW Wheat Field Wind Project, and share of output from White Creek Wind Project from project participant Lakeview Power & Light, including contracts for corporate parental guarantees, financing agreements, performance guarantees, and related subsidiary contracts.
  • Hydropower Acquisition and Construction: Drafted and negotiated contracts for the acquisition of real estate and project assets, public works contracts, contracts for environmental and other services, road access, and acquisition of materials related to construction of Snohomish County PUD's $29 million Youngs Creek Hydroelectric Project. Also represented the District in transfer of FERC license and related issues, and permitting issues arising with U.S. Forest Service, Snohomish County and Washington state agencies. Youngs Creek is the first hydro project to go online in Washington in nearly two decades and is the winner of Renewable Energy World's 2012 Hydro Project of the Year award and the "2012 Honor Award" from the Seattle Section of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Conducted due diligence review, site inspection, and legal analyses related to acquisition and potential acquisition of major existing Northwest hydroelectric project, and for acquisition of licensed but unbuilt projects.
  • Geothermal Transactions: Drafted and negotiated contracts concerning geothermal lease, drilling and access rights on private, state and federal lands, and worked with project team to obtain necessary licenses and permits from the Department of Natural Resources and U.S. Forest Service. Negotiated agreement for geothermal exploration involving approximately 500,000 acres of privately-owned forest lands in Washington, and Oregon. Negotiated and drafted agency agreement aimed at obtaining geothermal exploration contract in Nicaragua.
  • Solar Contracts: Drafted and negotiated contracts for development of Oregon solar project involving private developer, Washington publicly-owned utilities, and electric coop, to obtain power output, interconnection, and transmission rights. Negotiated a variety of contracts related to solar demonstration and community-owned solar projects. Developed strategy for maximizing value of solar development in the Pacific Northwest based on federal and state tax incentives, rebates, portfolio requirements, and RFP requirements.
  • Biomass: Drafted and negotiated both the original and the revised contracts to interconnect and purchase output from the Hampton Mills biomass generator in Darrington, Washington.
  • Biogas: Drafted and negotiated contracts for the interconnection and purchase of power from the Qualco Dairy Digester, then negotiated innovative agreement to transfer power output to Puget Sound Energy. Drafted and negotiated both the original and renewal contracts for purchase of output from the Klickitat PUD landfill gas generator and landfill gas generator at Cathcart, Washington.
  • REC Contracts: Drafted and negotiated a number of contracts for sale of Renewable Energy Credits from the renewable energy projects.
  • Major Asset Sales: Represented co-owner of Washington's largest coal-fired power plant in sale of plant, including obtaining all required regulatory approvals, contracting, and closing.

Administrative Matters

  • Bulk Electric System Definition Rulemaking: Drafted and filed extensive comments on Federal Energy Regulatory Commission proposed rulemaking concerning key "Bulk Electric System" definition on behalf of a coalition of public power entities representing more than 200 individual utilities across the Western Interconnection. Represented major Pacific Northwest utility in administrative proceedings before the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the Western Electricity Coordinating Council concerning definition of "Bulk Electric System," a critical issue for defining the scope of federal electric reliability regulation.
  • Integration of Renewable Resources: Filed extensive comments on behalf of a major Western utility in response to Federal Energy Regulatory Commission request for comments and notice of proposal rulemaking concerning measures considered by FERC to improve integration of renewable generation, principally wind and solar power, into interconnected electric grid.
  • Regional Transmission Organization: Successfully represented major public power utility in opposing regional transmission organization in the Pacific Northwest, including opposition at federal level, litigation (including successful appeal of FERC Order No. 2000), participation in West-wide and regional processes aimed at creating a regional transmission organization. Helped craft compromise that allowed formation of regional transmission planning body to capture many of the benefits of the RTO at substantially lower costs.
  • Bonneville Power Administration: Represented Bonneville's largest customer in critical Bonneville administrative proceedings, including "Subscription" process (plan for allocating BPA capacity following expiration of all BPA contracts in 2001), "Regional Dialogue" (long-term plan for allocation of BPA resources, resulting in "Tiered Rate Methodology"), "Residential Exchange" (administrative and court proceedings challenging large payments to regional investor-owned utilities by BPA), and power and transmission rate cases.

Reported Cases and Major Litigation

  • PáTu Wind Farm, LLC v. Portland General Electric Co., 150 FERC ¶ 61,032, reh'g denied, 151 FERC ¶ 61,223 (2015) (co-counsel for small wind farm; obtained declaratory order defining the rights of "Qualifying Facilities" to schedule power deliveries using dynamic transfers, 15-minute scheduling, and other innovative approaches designed to accommodate variable renewable generation).
  • Public Utility District No. 1 of Okanogan County v. Goldmark, 182 Wn.2d 519, 342 P.3d 308 (2015) (amicus brief filed on behalf of Washington Public Utility Districts Association, Washington Rural Electric Cooperative Association, and Snohomish County PUD in litigation successfully defending PUD authority to condemn state school trust lands for transmission lines and other utility purposes).
  • Kootenai Electric Cooperative, Inc., 143 FERC ¶ 61,232, reh'g denied, 145 FERC ¶ 61,229  (2013) (co-counsel for rural electric cooperative; obtained declaratory order from FERC allowing coop to deliver power from its Idaho "Qualifying Facility" into Oregon to obtain favorable "avoided cost" rates under Oregon PURPA regulations).
  • Lakey et al. v. Puget Sound Energy, Inc., 176 Wn.2d 909, 296 P.3d 860 (2013) (amicus brief filed on behalf of Washington Public Utility Districts Association, Snohomish County PUD, Clark County PUD and Seattle City Light successfully defeating nuisance claim for exposure to electromagnetic fields).
  • In re Bond Issuance of Greater Wenatchee Regional Events Center Public Facilities District, 287 P.3d 567 (2012) (represented Public Facilities District in challenge involving interpretation of municipal debt limits under Washington State Constitution) (co-counsel with Donald S. Cohen).
  • Enron Power Marketing, Inc., et al., 119 FERC ¶ 63,013 (2007), vacated as moot in light of settlement, 123 FERC ¶ 61,249 (2008), order reinstated, 126 FERC ¶ 61,230 (2009) (headed legal team in administrative trial resulting in order for disgorgement of $1.6 billion in unjust profits from Enron Corp. and declaration that $180 million "termination payment" sought from client is unjust and unreasonable and therefore contrary to the Federal Power Act).
  • Portland General Electric Co. v. Bonneville Power Administration, 501 F.3d 1009 (9th Cir. 2007), and Golden Northwest Aluminum, Inc. v. Bonneville Power Administration, 501 F.3d 1037 (9th Cir. 2007), cert. denied, 128 S. Ct. 2902 (2008) (supervised group of attorneys who successfully challenged BPA contracts involving the Northwest Power Act's Residential Exchange Program, ultimately resulting in savings of approximately $1 billion to publicly-owned utility customers of BPA; primary drafter of joint brief successfully opposing Supreme Court review of related case)(related case: Public Utility District No. 1 of Snohomish County, Washington v. Bonneville Power Administration, 506 F.3d 1145 (9th Cir. 2007)).
  • Public Utility District No. 1 of Snohomish County, Washington v. Morgan Stanley Capital Group, Inc., 471 F.3d 1053 (9th Cir. 2006), aff'd and remanded, Morgan Stanley Capital Group, Inc. v. Public Utility District No. 1 of Snohomish County, Washington, 128 S.Ct. 2733 (2008) (successfully briefed and argued challenge to major FERC order in the Ninth Circuit; primary drafter of joint Supreme Court brief).
  • Spectrum Glass Co. v. Public Utility District No. 1 of Snohomish County, Washington, 119 P.3d 854 (Wash. App. Div. I, 2005) (briefed and assisted in successful defense of claim asserting that utility had entered into fixed-rate contract for power supply).
  • Public Utility District No. 1 of Snohomish County, Washington v. FERC, 272 F.3d 607 (D.C. Cir. 2001) (successfully briefed and argued challenge to FERC Order No. 2000 suggesting it could approve Regional Transmission Organization in the absence of clear showing of consumer benefits).
  • Union Pacific Fuels, LP v. FERC, 129 F.3d 157 (D.C. Cir. 1997) (briefed and argued successful defense of agency order concerning natural gas pipeline ratemaking).
  • Southwest Center for Biological Diversity v. FERC, 967 F. Supp. 1166 (D. Ariz. 1997) (successful defense of agency order concerning compliance with Endangered Species Act in context of hydroelectric licensing).
  • Public Utilities Commission of the State of California v. FERC, 100 F.3d 1451 (9th Cir. 1996) (briefed and argued successful defense of agency order concerning federal jurisdiction over natural gas pipeline).
  • United Distribution Companies v. FERC, 88 F.3d 1105 (D.C. Cir. 1996) (successful defense of FERC's landmark Order No. 636, which resulted in major restructuring of regulation of the natural gas industry).
  • Association of Oil Pipelines v. FERC, 83 F.3d 1424 (D.C. Cir. 1996) (briefed and argued successful defense of major order reforming regulation of oil pipeline industry).
  • Bangor Hydro-Electric Co. v. FERC, 78 F.3d 659 (D.C. Cir. 1996) (briefed and argued challenge to agency order concerning fish passage requirements for federally-licensed hydroelectric project).
  • National Fuel Gas Supply Corp. v. FERC, 59 F.3d 1281 (D.C. Cir. 1995) (briefed and argued successful defense of agency order reforming natural gas pipeline contracts).
  • El Paso Natural Gas Co. v. FERC, 50 F.3d 23 (D.C. Cir. 1995) (briefed and argued successful defense of agency order concerning jurisdiction over natural gas facilities crossing international border).
  • Shell Oil Co. v. FERC, 47 F.3d 1186 (D.C. Cir. 1995) (briefed and argued successful defense of agency order concerning regulation of offshore oil pipelines under the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act).
  • Independent Energy Producers Association, Inc. v. California Public Utilities Commission, 36 F.3d 848 (9th Cir. 1994) (filed brief for amicus curiae concerning scope of federal preemption for setting rates for independent power producers under the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act).
  • Wisconsin Public Service Corporation v. FERC, 32 F.3d 1165 (7th Cir. 1994) (successfully briefed and argued appeal of agency ordered concerning authority to require construction of fish passage facilities on federally-licensed hydroelectric projects).
  • Town of Boylston v. FERC, 21 F.3d 1130 (D.C. Cir. 1994) (briefed and argued case involving charges for nuclear decommissioning costs).
  • PUD No. 1 of Jefferson County, Washington v. Washington Dept. of Ecology, 511 U.S. 700 (1994) (represented FERC in process of developing unified federal position on U.S. Supreme Court appeal involving scope of mandatory conditions that are permissible for states to impose on FERC hydropower licensees under Clean Water Act Section 401(a)).
  • Elizabethtown Gas Co. v. FERC, 10 F.3d 866 (D.C. Cir. 1993) (briefed and argued successful defense of agency order allowing "unbundling" of natural gas pipeline transmission and commodity rates and allowing market-based rates for commodity).
  • Northeast Utilities Service Co. v. FERC, 993 F.2d 937 (1st Cir. 1993) (briefed case involving major utility merger).
  • Northwest Pipeline Corp. v. FERC, 986 F.2d 1330 (10th Cir. 1993) (briefed and argued successful defense of agency order involving take-or-pay charges paid by natural gas pipeline).
  • Habersham Mills v. FERC, 976 F.2d 1381 (11th Cir. 1992) (briefed and argued successful defense of federal hydropower licensing authority against attack on Commerce Clause grounds).
  • Friends of the Ompompanoosuc v. FERC, 968 F.2d 1549 (2nd Cir. 1992) (briefed and argued successful defense of agency order granting federal license to small hydroelectric power developer).

Education

  • Stanford University School of Law (J.D., with distinction, 1987)
    • Order of the Coif
    • Member, Stanford Law Review
    • President and Editor, Stanford Environmental Law Society
    • Vice President, Stanford Public Interest Law Foundation
    • Olaus & Adolph Murie Award for Writing in Environmental Law
  • University of Kansas (B.S., with highest distinction, 1984)
    • Honors from College of Liberal Arts & Sciences & Department of Biology
    • Officer, Kansas Speech & Debate Society (earned honors and awards at debate tournaments throughout the United States)
    • Finalist, Rhodes Scholarship Competition

Admissions

  • Washington
  • District of Columbia
  • Idaho
  • US Supreme Court
  • US Court of Appeals, First, Second, Fourth, Fifth, Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, Tenth and Eleventh Circuits
  • US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia
  • US Courts for the District of Idaho

Awards/Honors and Organizational Memberships

  • Named on the Washington Super Lawyers list by Super Lawyers® Magazine since 2014
  • Listed in The Best Lawyers in America® in Environmental Law since 2018
  • American Public Power Association James E. Donovan Award for Individual Achievement, 2005
  • Everett (WA) Area Chamber of Commerce, Employee of the Year, 2005
  • American Public Power Association, Recognition for Achievement in Legal Field, 2004
  • Public Power Council Special Award, 2004
  • Northwest Environmental Business Council, Member
  • Energy Bar Association, Member
  • Board of Directors, NatureBridge (Olympic National Park Campus)
  • Seattle Rotary No. 4, Sustainability Committee

Publications/Speaking Engagements

More than 50 major presentations and press conferences since 2000, including:

  • Testimony to U.S. Senate Democratic Policy Committee
  • Legal presentations to Law Seminars International (recognized as LSI “Leading Speaker”), American Public Power Association National Legal Conference, Energy Bar Association Annual Meeting, Washington PUD Association Congressional Power & Water Tour, major regional energy and legal conferences
  • Materials obtained in discovery appear in the Oscar-nominated documentary Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room
  • Conducted interviews and obtained coverage in major media, including CBS News, CNN, National Public Radio, New York Times, Washington Post, Seattle Times, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, San Francisco Chronicle, Associated Press, and others
  • Articles published in Stanford Law Review, other law reviews, and non-legal publications
  • “September 16: Pivot Point for the Columbia River Treaty and the Future of the Columbia River Basin,” The Water Report, No. 125, July 15, 2014
  • “Cover Story: Gollum Has the Ring: 13 Steps for Utility Cyber-Security Protection,” Northwest Public Power Association Bulletin (May 2014) (co-authored with Maj. Gen. (Ret.) Tim Lowenberg)
  • “Regulatory Update: The California ISO-PacifiCorp Energy Imbalance Market Experiment: Can Public Power Avoid Assimilation?” Northwest Public Power Association Bulletin (January 2014)
  • “Cover Story: EIM, RTOs, and FERC Jurisdiction: Does Participation in a Regional Energy Imbalance Market Subject Public Power to FERC Jurisdiction?” Northwest Public Power Association Bulletin (May 2013)
  • “The Wind Hits the Fan: The Pacific Northwest Struggles to Integrate Its Rapidly Growing Wind Fleet,” POWER Magazine (April 2013)
  • “Electric Reliability and the Bulk Electric System Definition: Next Steps for Reducing Regulatory Burdens,” Northwest Public Power Association Bulletin (February 2013)
  • “A Guide to the Byzantine: The New ‘Bulk Electric System’ Definition Promises to Simplify Public Power Compliance With Electric Reliability Rules,” Northwest Public Power Association Bulletin (November 2012)
  • “Cover Story: The Old West Meets the New: The Columbia River Treaty in the 21st Century,” Northwest Public Power Association Bulletin (June 2012)
  • “Special Feature: GATT Sets Its Nets on Environmental Regulation: The GATT Panel Ruling on Mexican Yellowfin Tuna Imports and the Need for Reform of the International Trading System,” 23 Univ. of Miami Inter-American Law Rev. 569 (1991-92) (co-authored with Samantha Geffin)
  • “Diversity Compensation Systems: Ways to Compensate Developing Nations for Providing Genetic Material,” Seeds & Sovereignty: Debate Over the Use of Plant Genetic Resources at 338 (J. Kloppenberg, ed., 1988) (co-author with Professor John Barton)
  • “Genetic Ark: A Proposal to Preserve Genetic Diversity for Future Generations,” 40 Stanford Law Review 279 (1987)

Selected Presentations

  • “Energy Storage: The Key to Integration,” CleanTech Alliance and Northwest Environmental Business Council: Energy Leadership Summit, Seattle, WA (October 30, 2018)
  • “Cooperative Cleanup: Fostering Public / Private Partnerships,” Northwest Environmental Business Council: Northwest Remediation Conference, Tacoma, WA (September 20, 2018)
  • “Energy Storage: Business and Transactional Issues - Market Participation,” Law Seminars International, Seattle, WA (June 12, 2018)
  • “At the Intersection of Energy, Business & Industry, and the Environment,” Energy Bar Association, Rocky Mountain Chapter and the Renewable Energy Subcommittee Spring Conference, Denver, CO (April 5, 2018)
  • “Renewable Energy Projects: Negotiating Power Purchase Agreements,” Strafford's Webinars (February 8, 2018)
  • “Market Access for Renewables: PURPA,” Northwest Environmental Business Council: Washington's Energy Future Conference, Tacoma, WA (November 6, 2017)
  • “Power Purchase Agreements for Renewables,” Law Seminars International, Teleseminar (December 10, 2015)
  • “Energy and Clean Tech Legislative Roundup: Notable 2015 Enactments in Washington and Around the West,” Cairncross & Hempelmann update (August 24, 2015)
  • “PURPA Haze: PURPA, Non-Discriminatory Access and the Future of Electric Transmission,” Law Seminars International, 4th Annual Electric Transmission in the West Conference, Portland, OR (May 8, 2015)
  • “Powering the Bush: EPA’s RICE Rule and Other Developments Affecting Off-the-Grid Generation in Rural Alaska,” Law Seminars International, 10th Annual Energy Markets & Regulation in Alaska Conference, Anchorage, AK (December 9, 2014)
  • “The Columbia River Treaty, An American Perspective: A Tale of the Old (and New) American West,” Law Seminars International, 14th Annual Water & Stormwater Conference, Seattle WA (May 5, 2014)
  • “The Columbia River Treaty: A Tale of the Old (and New) West,” Law Seminars International, 19th Annual Buying & Selling Power in the West Conference, Seattle WA (January 14, 2014) (selected for Law Seminars International’s “Top-Rated Speaker” Series)
  • “Separating ‘Transporter Psychosis’ From ‘Phaser Blast’: The Washington Supreme Court’s Decision Rejecting Nuisance Claims Based on Electromagnetic Field Exposure,” American Public Power Association National Legal Seminar, Seattle, WA (October 21, 2013) & Washington Association of PUD and Municipal Attorneys, Airway Heights, WA (December 4, 2013)
  • “Ten Things I Hate About You: FERC and the Pacific Northwest Power Markets,” Northwest Power & Conservation Council Symposium on Pacific Northwest Power Markets, Seattle, WA (July 8, 2013)
  • “PURPA Haze: PURPA Litigation in the Northwest and What It Means for Public Power,” Washington Association of PUD and Municipal Attorneys, Union, WA (June 20, 2013)
  • “Transmission Optimization: A Report Card,” Law Seminars International, Electric Transmission in the West Conference, Seattle WA (May 20, 2013)
  • “REC Wreck in the WECC! The Commerce Clause and Litigation Challenging RPS Standards Across the West,” Law Seminars International, Buying & Selling Power in the West Conference, Seattle WA (January 18, 2013)
  • “Whatever Happened to Dodd and Frank? Recent Developments in Dodd-Frank Compliance for Electric Utilities,” Washington Association of PUD and Municipal Attorneys, Tukwila, WA (December 5, 2012)
  • “A Walking Tour of Byzantium: The Dodd-Frank Act and Electric Utilities,” North American Power Credit Organization, Seattle, WA (September 2012)
  • “The Columbia River Treaty: A Tale of the Old (and New) West,” Washington Association of PUD and Municipal Attorneys, Tukwila, WA (June 7, 2012)
  • “Paint it Green: Recent Developments in the World of Transmission,” Washington Association of PUD and Municipal Attorneys, Tukwila, WA (December 8, 2011)
  • “The Wind Hits the Fan: Public Power and the Legal and Strategic Challenges of Integrated Renewable Resources,” American Public Power Association Annual Legal Seminar, Memphis, TN (November 8, 2011)
  • “The Wind Hits the Fan: An Abundance of Water and an Abundance of Wind Results in an Abundance of Litigation,” Washington Association of PUD and Municipal Attorneys, Semiahmoo, WA (June 30, 2011) & Idaho State Bar, Environmental and Natural Resources Law Section, Boise, ID (October 26, 2011)
  • “Life in Byzantium: Recent Developments in Electric Reliability,” Washington Association of PUD and Municipal Attorneys, Alderbrook, WA (2010)
  • “Wind Bites Man: Issues in Contracting for Renewable Resources,” Washington Association of PUD and Municipal Attorneys, Alderbrook, WA (2010)
  • “Exploring the Strange New World of Consumer Protection: What the Supreme Court Did in the Morgan Stanley Decision and What It Might to in Maine PUC,” 32nd Annual National Conference, National Association of Regulatory Attorneys, Las Vegas, NV (2009)
  • “Exploring the Strange New World of Consumer Protection: The Mobile-Sierra Doctrine After the Supreme Court’s Morgan Stanley Decision,” Energy Bar Association Mid-Year Meeting, Washington DC (2008) & American Public Power Association Annual Legal Seminar, Colorado Springs, CO (2008)
  • “Is There a There There? FERC, the Mobile-Sierra Doctrine, and Consumer Protection,” American Public Power Association Annual Legal Seminar, Seattle, WA (2007)
  • “The 2000-01 Western Power Crisis: Consumer Exploitation and Regulatory Indifference,” United States Senate Democratic Policy Study Committee, Washington, DC (2006)
  • “David v. Goliath: Snohomish County PUD’s Role in Bringing Down Enron -or- Our Journey Through the Media Funhouse,” American Public Power Association Annual Legal Seminar, San Antonio, TX (2005)
  • “Sex, Lies & Audiotape: Enron and the Future of Electric Restructuring,” Washington PUD Association Congressional Public Power Tour, Lake Chelan, WA (2005)
  • “Where’s The Beef? Why an RTO Makes Little Sense for the Pacific Northwest,” Law Seminars International, Buying & Selling Power in the West Conference, Seattle WA (2004)
  • “The Case Against RTOs,” National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Conference, Santa Fe, NM (2002)